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CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is an emergency life-saving procedure that is done when someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after an electric shock, heart attack, or drowning.

CPR combines rescue breathing and chest compressions.

  • Rescue breathing provides oxygen to the person's lungs.
  • Chest compressions keep oxygen-rich blood flowing until the heartbeat and breathing can be restored.

Permanent brain damage or death can occur within minutes if blood flow stops. Therefore, it is very important that blood flow and breathing be continued until trained medical help arrives. Emergency (911) operators can guide you through the process.

CPR techniques vary slightly depending on the age or size of the person, including different techniques for adults and children 9 years and older, children 1 through 8 years old, and infants.

References

American Heart Association. Highlights of the 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR and ECC. eccguidelines.heart.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/2015-AHA-Guidelines-Highlights-English.pdf. Accessed July 9, 2017.

American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ed. Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2014. www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m55540601_FA-CPR-AED-Part-Manual.pdf. Accessed September 14, 2017.

Berg MD, Schexnayder SM, Chameides L, et al. Part 13: pediatric basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S862-S875. PMID: 20956229 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956229.

Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: adult basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S685-S705. PMID: 20956221 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956221.

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          Review Date: 3/31/2017

          Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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