References: Diet and Nutrition Assessment

The Health Risk Assessments have been created by A.D.A.M. Inc. The assessment questions and their corresponding health messages are based on the following references and physician review:

American Diabetes Association. Professional Practice Committee for the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes - 2019. Diabetes Care. 2019;42 Supplement 1:S1-S2. PMID: 30559224 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30559224.

American Heart Association website. The American Heart Association's Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/aha-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations#.WQz-YdryuUm. Updated August 15, 2015. Accessed November 27, 2018.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Losing weight. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/losing_weight/. Updated February 13, 2018. Accessed November 29, 2018.

Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff EM, et al. Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26(7):2045–2047. PMID: 25182228 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986381.

Dominiczak MH, Logue J. Nutrients and diets. In: Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH, eds. Medical Biochemistry, 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 32.

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25 Pt B):2960-2984. PMID: 24239922 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239922.

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25 Pt B):2985-3023. PMID: 24239922 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239922.

Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 49.

National Cancer Institute website. Obesity and Cancer. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/obesity/obesity-fact-sheet#q4. Updated January 17, 2017. Accessed January 14, 2019.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf. Accessed November 27, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Calcium. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/ Updated September 26, 2018. Accessed November 27, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Folate. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/. Updated October 4, 2018. Accessed November 27, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Vitamin D. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/ Updated November 9, 2018. Accessed November 27, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014.

National Cancer Institute website. Alcohol and Cancer Risk. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/alcohol/alcohol-fact-sheet Updated September 13, 2018. Accessed November 27, 2018.

Waller DG, Sampson AP. Substance abuse and dependence. In: Waller DG, Sampson AP, eds. Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 54.